Here is the fifth defense against preference avoidance actions, the so-called floating lien defense.
Defenses To Preference Avoidance Actions, Part V:
The Floating Lien Defense
In my last post I discussed the security interest defense, and noted that § 547(c)(3) requires that the security agreement must clearly identify the collateral securing the debt. The example that set the stage for the discussion of § 547(c)(3) was of the purchase of a car. The debtor took possession of the car and at the same time transferred a security interest in the car to the creditor. Thus, the debtor had the car at the time of the transfer.
However, a lien can be created even before the debtor has the collateral, or even before the collateral comes into existence. Such a lien is called a floating lien.
For example, suppose the debtor is a business that regularly purchases widgets from a supplier, and then resells them at its retail outlets. The parties can create a lien that specifies that all future deliveries of widgets become collateral securing a floating debt the debtor has to the supplier. As the inventory is sold, the debt is paid from the proceeds, with the unsold inventory serving as collateral for the unpaid portion of the debt.